The brachial plexus is the network of nerves that sends signals from your spinal cord to your shoulder, arm and hand. A brachial plexus injury occurs when these nerves are stretched, compressed, or in the most serious cases, ripped apart or torn away from the spinal cord.
Cours d’Anatomie: Plexus brachial … Plexus brachial
Brachial plexus: anatomical course and lesions This issue has come up in Question 14.3 from the first paper of 2013. The candidates were invited to differentiate between an ulnar nerve injury and a lower brachial plexus injury in a patient who had returned from cardiac surgery.
The brachial plexus consists of four components: (a) roots, (b) trunks, (c) divisions, and (d) cords. The roots and trunks arc located in the neck, divisions behind the clavicle and the cords in the axilla. Roots of The Brachial Plexus The roots of the brachial plexus are the anterior rami of C5 to C8, and most of T1.
The brachial plexus is a complex intercommunicating network of nerves formed by spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. It supplies all sensory innervation to the upper limb and most of the axilla, with the exception of an area of the medial upper arm and axilla, which is supplied by the intercostobrachial nerve T2.
The brachial plexus passes from the neck to the axilla and supplies the upper limb. It is formed from the ventral rami of the 5th to 8th cervical nerves and the ascending part of the ventral ramus of the 1st thoracic nerve. Branches from the 4th cervical and the 2nd thoracic ventral ramus may contribute.
Before it enters the cervicoaxillary canal, the brachial plexus is located within the posterior triangle of the neck. It is a space whose anterior wall is presented with the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the posterior wall is the anterior surface of the trapezius muscle.
The five roots of the brachial plexus are the five anterior rami of the spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. These roots pass anterior to scalenus medius and posterior to scalenus anterior before entering the base of the neck.
Brachial plexus injuries are usually caused by trauma to the roots of the plexus as they exit the cervical spine. This most commonly occurs in road traffic accidents and falls from height. Inflammatory, neoplastic, and compressive causes are also possible.
The long thoracic nerve is a proximal branch of the brachial plexus, arising from the proximal C5, C6, and C7 spinal nerves, that innervates the serratus anterior muscle. This muscle originates on the lateral surfaces of the upper 8 ribs and inserts on the entire medial border of the scapula.