Pectus excavatum is a Latin term for “hollowed chest,” a malformation of the rib cage characterized by a sternum that caves in, causing a sunken appearance in the chest wall. Also known as “funnel chest” or “cobbler’s chest,” pectus excavatum is usually congenital and cases may range from mild to severe.
The pectoralis major (from Latin pectus ‘breast’) is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest of the human body.It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles and lies under the breast.Beneath the pectoralis major is the pectoralis minor, a thin, triangular muscle.The pectoralis major’s primary functions are flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of the humerus.
We report on a unique combination of multiple variations concerning the pectoral muscles and the left external jugular vein. Specifically, a bilateral hypoplasia of the medial clavicular portion of the pectoralis major muscle was noticed along with the coexistence of total right pectoralis minor aplasia, substituted by loose connective and fatty tissue.
Venous malformations (VMs) are a type of type of vascular malformation that results from veins that have developed abnormally, which stretch or enlarge over time. VMs can be extremely painful and sensitive. A VM usually looks like a bluish discoloration. It can be a single lesion or it may be one of many.
Malformations present at birth are considered true vascular malformations. A true vascular malformation develops proportionally as the child grows; it does not progress rapidly during childhood or disappear. The malformation may become visible later in life as the flow of blood increases through abnormal associations between veins and arteries.
Malposition Usually the fetal head engages in the occipito-anterior position (more often left occipito-anterior (LOA) rather than right) and then undergoes a short rotation to be directly occipito-anterior in the mid-cavity. Malpositions are abnormal positions of the vertex of the fetal head relative to the maternal pelvis.
A venous malformation is defined as a simple malformation with slow flow and an abnormal venous network. However, confusion in terminology, with misnomers such as hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, phlebangioma, and phlebangiomatosis, continues to be responsible for improper diagnosis and illogical treatment.
Summary Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects in your vascular system. Your vascular system is your body’s network of blood vessels.
Vascular malformations and tumors comprise a wide, heterogeneous spectrum of lesions that often represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Frequent use of an inaccurate nomenclature has led to considerable confusion. Since the treatment strategy depends on the type of vascular anomaly, correct diagnosis and classification are crucial.
Originally posted 2020-02-20 09:56:22.